Hand Stitching Versus Machine Stitching

What is the difference between machine sewing and manual hand stitching (Saddle Stitching)?

One thread vs. two threads

When you use a machine, that sewing line uses two separate threads that lock around each other in what is known as a “Machine Lock Stitch”.

A hand-stitched line uses a single thread with needles on both ends. The thread runs back and forth on either side of the leather in what is called a “Saddle Stitch”

Difference in Construction

Technically speaking, the hand-stitched piece that uses the “saddle stitch” provides a stronger and more durable construction than the machine sewn piece that uses the “locking stitch”.

A locking stitch by a sewing machine has two threads running the length of the material on opposite sides, if one thread were to snap at a single point, the entire thread could unravel along that side of the material thereby allowing the material to separate.

However in a hand-stitched piece, should the thread snap at a single point, it could not easily unravel the length of the item since it’s passing on both sides of the leather. More importantly, it’s easier to repair the line of stitching.

Difference in Aesthetics

Saddle stitch results in an elegant line of slightly angled stitches when used with a particular set of tools. Decisions like stitches per inch, size and type of thread, and how we set the holes (e.g. pricking iron, diamond chisel) all play a role in the design of a piece.

Machine lock stitches usually look pretty straight on the top and the bottom side would be a usually visibly thinner thread to complete the lock stitch.

Leathercraft Workshop

My new setup is now operational and starting to churn out products for locals and tourists alike. New stamps and leather recently arrived so the range of images on products greatly increased. A new supplier of kangaroo leather has been found, so now many new products in the pipeline.

To see what is now available, visit shop from the menu.

Come back and visit often as product line grows and changes all the time.

Tumeric: How To Use For Better Health

Flickr - Turmeric - anuandrajAnna Hunt, Staff Writer
Waking Times

Delicious raw in smoothies or salad dressings, or as the savory orange spice behind the splendor of curry dishes, Turmeric is proving again and again to be one of the most beneficial and versatile natural health supplements one can take, and, it is surprisingly easily to grow. Turmeric, also known as Curcurma Longa, is related to the well-known ginger plant and also produces a rhizome that grows just beneath the ground. It’s tall and brightly colored tropical green leaves are beautiful in the garden and commonly used in landscaping, but the rhizomes are harvested as food and medicine, or re-planted seasonally.

To grow this beneficial plant this, one only needs a few rhizomes, a pot and a sunny place. Just place a small section of the rhizome an inch or two under the soil and water regularly. They prefer tropical climates and plenty of rain, but are known to grow exponentially in a single season of 4-6 months with lots of water and sun. This is a remarkably easy to grow herb for everyday consumption and for preparedness gardens.

Turmeric is delicious in many recipes, and ideas for using it in the kitchen are easy to find. In addition to eating it in it’s raw form, it’s commonly dried and ground into a powder or used in many delicious variations of curry spices. High quality organic turmeric powder is available for cooking and crafting medicines, and turmeric supplements in the form of capsules can also readily be found. Additionally, there are also many forms of tinctures, and extracts, that can be used to various beneficial ends. Bio-dynamic, organic Turmeric is also used in the production of high quality multi-vitamins.

In recent years there has been a growing body of scientific evidence indicating that Turmeric has incredible medicinal value, and here are 10 amazing health benefits of turmeric

  1. Turmeric can help to prevent and heal some forms of cancer.
  2. Turmeric can be of significant benefit in the treatment and prevention of Diabetes.
  3. Turmeric is a detoxifying food and can help the body remove from poisons, heavy metals and illness.
  4. Turmeric extract is an effective alternative to some anti-depressants.
  5. Turmeric can protect and regenerate the liver.
  6. Turmeric can relieve arthritis pain, and stop inflammation.
  7. Turmeric supports a healthy brain and heart.
  8. Turmeric boosts the immune system and can replace certain vaccines.
  9. Turmeric can help in weight loss.
  10. Turmeric can elevate the spirit.

As Hippocrates said, “let food be thy medicine, and thy medicine be food.” This is indeed true and Turmeric is one of the most potent, effective, and easy to incorporate foods to your diet. Grab some rhizomes try it out in your next smoothie or dish, and be sure to save a few to plant some in the garden. Learn more about this healing plant and take the time to learn how to prepare it for various things, like the following video which demonstrates how to make the Ayurvedic recipe, Golden Milk, which is very effective in treating chronic pain and inflammation:

Supa Natural Pain Relief Balm


  • 5-10ml Arnica – bruises, rheumatic muscle relief, joint swelling
  • 10 drops Clove – analgesic which reduces pain perception
  • 15 drops Rosemary
  • 10 drops Basil
  • 12 drops Eucalyptus, blue gum
  • 12 drops Peppermint
  • Mix in 100g bees wax with some olive oil

This may be effective for arthritis, sore muscles, muscle cramps, joint pain. It may also be used as pre-sport warm up rub, as well as chest rub or inhalation with hot water during cold and flu infections

Aquaponic System Maintenance

Our system has been running for a few months now, and I thought I’d share my maintenance schedule.


  • Feeding – feed fish morning and night. Feed yabbies every second day after removing any uneaten food pieces.
  • Check water temperature.
  • Check pumps and plumbing. To conserve power, I use a timer on the pump to operate it during daylight, and a timer on the aerators during the night. Check them.
  • Check that all siphons are operating correctly.
  • Pick vegetables as needed, while checking for bugs and disease.


  • Test water for pH, ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and dissolved oxygen.
  • Check water level in sump tank and top up as required.
  • Plant out new plants after removing spent plants. Plant need seeds as required for planting out in 2-3 weeks time.

Testing Water in Aquaponics

It is important to monitor ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, temperature and the pH level of the water, to ensure that they are in ‘range’. If not, you need to take corrective action otherwise fish and plants may die or succumb to disease.


  1. Test kit. Most aquaponic gardeners use the Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Inc. API Freshwater Master Test Kit. This kit is inexpensive (about $AU47.00 at writing time) and is easy to use.
  2. Thermometer. Get a submersible one. Water temperature is important as it affects fish health and plant growth.
  3. Dissolved oxygen measurement. This can be done with a kit or a meter, and gives an indication of the aerobic activity in the system, which is important to the bacteria, the plants and the fish. The most accurate measure is obtained by using an electronic one, but remember that you get what you pay for.
  4. pH meter. Nice to have, as it speeds up the measurement of pH, which is very important.

Locating Your System

Before starting to create your aquaponics system, you should give some thought as to where you are going to put it. In many cases, you may not have a choice of locations. If you do have a choice, it is important to consider that the chosen site will get 4-6 hours of sunlight on the grow beds and none at all on the fish tanks if possible.

Sun on the fish tanks helps algae to grow. Growing invasive plants on the top of the fish tank provides shade and shelter for the fish.

Some other factors to consider are:

Access to power. You need power to operate pumps and aerators, so they are best located near existing power sources. Running long extension leads is not the best because of voltage drops and the danger associated with them.

  • Access for planting, harvesting and maintenance. When the growbeds are full of plants, it can be very hard to reach over to the back of them to harvest or replant. Many plants will hang over the growbeds, so it is a good idea to leave at least 750mm between the growbeds. Access to all sides of the fish tanks is also very important, as fish can be hard to catch. We’ve planned our system to allow wheelchair access, as well as skidsteer access for adding more components as we expand the system.
  • Seasonal differences. There are large differences between the summer and winter sun tracks. Make sure your chosen site gets enough sun in winter.
  • Existing vegetation. Don’t place your system under deciduous trees or plants that have a heavy blossom drop. Some of these plants are poisonous to fish and even affect plant growth.
  • Children and pets (including chooks!). Make sure your system is child and pet friendly and safe. We’ve had issues with chooks eating all of our lettuce and salad greens – they weren’t happy with the leftovers!

Water and Simple Living

The following us an updated version of an assignment submitted for my study in Writing the Zeitgeist at Curtin University.

Live simply so that others may simply live – Gandhi.

The other night, while watching the SBS program ’Go Back to Where You Came From’, I was struck by segment of the program about the woman in the Ethiopian UNHCR camp, who had to walk over one kilometre with containers to get her daily water supply. When she arrived at the water taps, with the film crew and show participants, there was no water. The camp had been in this location for over three years. In the background was a high, strong security fence, with rows of new four wheel drive vehicles and trucks for the UNHCR staff. Surely, after more than three years of existence, there would be a much better water supply, as well as better housing for the refugees.

This story segment which included all the tents, flapping in the desert wind, brought back to mind the quote from Gandhi. Where have we, as a species, gone wrong? Why do we have wars and conflicts? Is is just because of greed – of wanting more? By us wanting more, someone is going to have to miss out. Food supply experts have stated that there is enough food produced in the world to eliminate hunger, but that the problem is most of it is used for the production of livestock feed to produce meat.

One looming problem that mankind has to solve is the coming shortage of water. Peak oil is a problem already being widely discussed, but peak water is something that is being overlooked in many countries. It is estimated that by 2025, two out of three people will face water stress; that is, they will not have enough water for their daily need. An Australian example of this problem was experienced during the recent drought in the Murray-Darling Basin and the pressure on water supplies to Broken Hill, Adelaide and other towns in the basin. Water stress is also evident in places like Yemen, and in many other African countries. One of the problems with meat production is the amount of water that is required for each kilogram produced. With the growing world population, by 2050 experts have forecast that there will not be enough water to grow the animal feeds required .

So how much water do we consume each day, apart from what we drink from the tap? A 125ml glass of wine with dinner – 120l, a 250ml glass of orange juice – 170l, a hamburger – 2400l plus an egg which adds another 135l, the cotton t-shirt that I wore today – 4100l, and the shoes I’m wearing – 8000l, one sheet of the A4 paper that was used to print this essay – 10l, and between 16,000 to 100,000l per kilo of beef. Every country that exports food, is also exporting water .

I live a lifestyle that many people find hard to accept in the area where I have my home. I have no mains power, only solar with a backup diesel powered generator. All my water comes from either tanks collected from the buildings I built myself from local timber (well, I did buy new corrugated iron), or from run-off into a couple of dams. The dam water is used for toilet flushing and water the animals (chooks, dogs, macro-pods, and birds) orchard and plants around the house that provide nectar for the birds and insects, and something nice for us to look at, and a fire break of sorts. Our house is mostly constructed from mud bricks that we have made ourselves, with all the timber being cut by me from either the property or local native forests.

When we first moved here, we lived in a tent, and had to cart water. I can empathise with the refugees. It took a few years to get the shed built, the solar panels installed and tank attached because I was working full time. It was great to have 24×7 power again, as well as running hot and cold water. I put water into the house of my great aunt, who was born on January 1st 1900, in the late 1970’s. She had carried water into the house all of that time for washing clothes and dishes. She did have a flushing toilet and shower (hot water from a chip heater).

All of the doors, windows, shelving, kitchen cupboards and the like are recycled. I will admit to having a digital TV and a Blue-Ray player for entertainment. We did investigate installing a composting toilet, but after having used them in National Parks and roadside rest areas, decided that health and cleanliness was of greater importance. The water that does come out via a reed bed is used to water some trees and plants that provide shade and shelter, so I don’t consider the toilet to be a great water consumer.

I was raised in a family of six, with my paternal grandmother living with us as well. We had dams for the garden, but only a 15,000 gallon rainwater tank for the household and washing utensils in the dairy in a 25 inch rainfall area. As a result, the family was extremely careful in using the rainwater. We did run short on occasions. It still pains me to see taps dripping, water cisterns leaking, and lawns and gardens being irrigated. It also causes me angst to see farmers still using flood irrigation for low value crops and growing grass for cattle.

The future for the water in the Murray Darling Basin (MDB) is causing many problems for all people concerned: the people who live, and work there; politicians both federal and state; as well as those who depend on the water from it. The MDB is vitally important to the food production and export income of Australia, as it ’ generates 39% of … the agricultural income, 53% of Australia’s cereal production, 95% of the oranges, 54% of the apples, 28% of the cattle herd, 45% of the sheep herd, and 62% of pig herd’ . Only 4% of the rainfall in the basin is run-off for dams and rivers; the rest evaporates or drains into the ground. Over 35% of the runoff occurs from 12% of the basin area in catchments of the Murrumbidgee, Upper Murray, Goulburn, Broken and Lodden Rivers .

Professor Tim Lang introduced the concept of food miles in 1990, the aim of which was to ’highlight the hidden ecological, social and economic consequences of food production to consumers in a simple way, one which had objective reality but also connotations’. His article was important in raising awareness of the issues relating to where food is grown and the cost of transporting it to where it is consumed. A 2008 Choice report states that ’ a typical basket of groceries from the supermarket has “food miles” equivalent to two loops of the globe’ .

Another way, and it has been suggested a better way of analysing the true cost of food and our other requirements is via life-cycle analysis, which takes into account the inputs and outputs of energy involved in production, processing, packaging and transport of the food to the point of purchase, as well as air, water and waste pollution, and resource depletion.

We all need to be very conscious of our consumption patterns, choosing our foods very carefully. It’s very easy to buy the house labels at a low cost, when we all need to save money. Sometimes those foods are produced at a cost to the foreign countries farmers, who don’t have enough food or income for themselves, or they grow them in place of their own food for their own consumption. This is demonstrated by the clearing of Amazon rainforest to grow soy beans for export to Europe for cattle food and oil production, leaving the local people without food.

By growing our own foods as much as possible, even with a patio or balcony garden or small aquaponics system, and being aware of the water used to produce our foods, food miles and life cycle of the products, and by cooking and preserving our own foods, we can not only reduce our living costs, but also live more simply, and allow others in the world to simply live.

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